Estonia will serve at the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) between 2015-17, it was decided on Wednesday.
The General Assembly elected 18 new members on Wednesday. Estonia will fill the seat previously occupied by Belarus. The newly elected states, including Estonia, will begin their terms on January 1.
Estonia is also one of the nine countries that did not serve on the Council during the previous term.
Foreign Minister Urmas Paet said Estonia's focus will be on rights of women and indigenous peoples, and enduring internet freedom.
"Estonia will also prioritize peace and security and effective coordination in cases of humanitarian crises," he said.
Being an ECOSOC member will improve Estonia's international profile and visibility, and help to strengthen its relations with developing countries.
The Council's 54 member states are elected by the General Assembly for three-year terms. Eastern European countries have six seats between them.
ECOSOC is the United Nations' central platform for reflection, debate, and innovative thinking on sustainable development. It engages with policymakers, parliamentarians, academics, major groups, foundations, business sector representatives and more than 3,200 NGOs in a dialogue on sustainable development through a programmatic cycle of meetings.
The work of the Council is guided by an issue-based approach and there is an annual theme that accompanies each program cycle.