Estonia celebrates Day of Restoration of Independence
Estonian flags will be hoisted on Thursday (August 20) to mark the Day of Restoration of Independence (Taasiseseisvumispäev), which is a public holiday in Estonia.
On Thursday, all state and local government authorities and legal persons governed by public law are to hoist the Estonian flag to mark the occasion. Everyone else may also hoist the flag for the occasion, the Government Office said.
Late at night on August 20, 1991, the Supreme Council of Estonia declared the independence of the Republic of Estonia on the basis of national unanimity and restored diplomatic relations of the Republic of Estonia with other countries.
Iceland was the first foreign country to recognize Estonia's restored independence on August 22, 1991.
This year, the day will be marked with fireworks launched from the Tallinn TV Tower at 9.45 p.m.
Fighter jets of the French Air Force will also perform low-altitude flyovers over Estonian cities on Thursday to mark the occasion.
Mirage 2000-5 jets of the French Air Force will fly over Parnu at 10:10 a.m., over Viljandi at 10:15, over Tartu at 10:25, over Tapa at 10:35 and over Tallinn at 10:45, military spokespeople in Tallinn said.
The jets are to fly over the cities at an altitude of less than 1,000 feet, meaning slightly over 300 meters.
The French Air Force jets stationed in the Baltics as part of NATO's Baltic air policing mission operate out of Amari Air Base in Estonia.
The events of August 20, 1991 explained
The information below was first published by ERR News in 2019. You can see a timeline of events here.
On August 20, 1991, an attempted coup by Communist hardliners in Moscow precipitated a succession of events in Estonia that, on the same day, led to a resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR to declare the country's independence from the collapsing Soviet Union. Since then, Estonia has celebrated its regained independence on this date every year.
Twenty-nine years ago, on August 20 1991, volunteers rushed to protect Tallinn's TV tower after Soviet forces were sent to the country to cripple the country's communication systems.
The events took place during a three-day attempted coup in Moscow by hardline members of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union who were unhappy with Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev's perestroika and glasnost reforms.
When the 76th Guards Air Assault Division arrived in Tallinn from Pskov, they were met by volunteers who had responded to a call to take up the defense of Toompea Hill as well as the city's radio and television buildings.
That night, at just after 11 p.m., 69 members of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia voted in favor of the Resolution on the National Independence of Estonia. The decision was announced to the public the following day. Latvia also declared independence the same day.
On August 22, Iceland became the first country to formally recognize Estonia's newly re-established independence. Sweden became the first country to open its embassy in Tallinn on August 29, and on September 6 the Soviet Union recognized Estonia's independence. On September 17, Estonia joined the United Nations.
On Christmas Day, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev resigned, declared his office extinct, and handed over its powers to Russian President Boris Yeltsin. One day later, the Soviet Union was officially dissolved.
However, Russian troops remained in the country for another three years.
On July 26 1994, Estonian President Lennart Meri and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed an agreement for the complete withdrawal of Russian troops from Estonian territory, the culmination of years of negotiations. At the start of August, Russian troops were completely withdrawn from both Estonia and Latvia.
Today 29 years ago Estonia regained its independence and was able to join the free world.— Estonian MFA ???????? (@MFAestonia) August 20, 2020
This photo was taken on 24 August 1991 and depicts Foreign Minister Lennart Meri's first press conference in re-independent Estonia.#taasiseseisvumispäev
???? Peeter Langovits pic.twitter.com/9PZpObyBb9
Below is a translation of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia's Resolution on the National Independence of Estonia, which was published on August 21, 1991 in the State Gazette (Riigi Teataja).
RESOLUTION OF THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF THE REPUBLIC OF ESTONIA
312: Regarding Estonia's national independence
Based on the continuity of the Republic of Estonia as a subject of international law, drawing upon the Estonian population's declaration of intent clearly expressed in the March 3, 1991 referendum to restore the Republic of Estonia's national independence, given the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR's March 30, 1990 decision regarding "The Estonian national status" and the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR's declaration regarding "The Cooperation of the Supreme Soviet of the Estonian SSR and the Congress of Estonia," taking into account that the coup which has taken place in the Soviet Union poses a serious threat to the democratic processes taking place in Estonia and has rendered impossible the restoration of the national independence of the Republic of Estonia by means of bilateral negotiations with the Soviet Union, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia has decided:
1. To confirm the Republic of Estonia's national independence and seek the restoration of the Republic of Estonia's diplomatic relations.
2. To establish for the development and submission to referendum of the Estonian Constitution the Constitutional Assembly, the composition of which will be shaped by delegation from the Republic of Estonia's highest legislative organ of state power, the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia, and the representative body of the Estonian citizenry, the Congress of Estonia.
3. To hold parliamentary elections according to the new Constitution of the Republic of Estonia in the year 1992.
The resolution was signed on August 20, 1991 by the chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Estonia, Arnold Rüütel. Rüütel would later go on to become Estonia's second president after it regained its independence.
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Editor: Helen Wright